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teacher Prep

Lab sheet & activites

Class Movie

Watch Class Movie

Class Movie

Teacher Prep Movie

Lab Materials Needed

Blockey Koa Crate

from Kea STEMCrate

- 1 Springy Spring Scale per student

Student Lab Sheet

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Student Edition


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Daily Activity Guide:

Girl with Binoculars

Day 1: Go on a bird hunt

2:30-2:35 pm     

2:35-2:40 pm

2:40-3:00 pm

3:00-3:30 pm

3:30-4:30 pm

4:30-4:50 pm

4:50-5:00 pm

Say Hello

Pass out snacks

Snack and Storytime

Free Play

STEMTaught Lab/Art/Programming

Game Time/Journaling

Free Play


Who can name a living thing you’ve seen today? Let’s see how many living things we can list that we’ve already seen today!

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

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STEM Taught Lab/Art/Programming: Let's Go on a bird walk! 60 minutes



- Clip board (1 per student)

- Binoculars (students can share)

- Journal Sheet (1 per student)

- Pencil (1per student)

Introduction: Let's go on a bird watching walk - see if you can find any evidence of birds on or around your campus. We will bring a clipboard with paper for journaling and recording what we discover while out on the walk.  Keep your eye out for feathers to collect, bird nests in trees and birds in the sky. Also listen for any bird calls as sometimes you may hear birds but not see them. Let try and count all the birds we see.


Game Time/Journal: Play Birdie! 20 minutes


Introduction: Birds are great at hiding and traveling quietly. For this game we get to try and do these things. The 'seeker' will count, and the others will be the birds and hide. The ‘seeker’ is going to count at a designated spot called the nest (such as a tree or fence). The nest is the spot that the others are going to try to get back to. The ‘seeker’ goes off to find everyone hiding. They are all going to try to sneak back to the nest and shout "Birdie!" If they do, then they are safe. The ‘seeker’ is going to try to tag all the birds. If you are ‘tagged’ then you are out. It’s basically a sneaky race back to the nest.





Wrap up: 

Next time we will be building a bird feeder to attract more birds to the campus and we need you to bring some items to school to build your own bird feeder. 

K-3rd Grade Bird Journal Page.pdf
4th-8th Grade Journal Page.pdf
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Day 2:  Build a Bird Feeder!

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Today we’re going to read a story together! It’s about ornithology (pronounced “Or-nih-thaw-lo-gee.”) Let’s practice saying that as a class! An ornithologist is a scientist that studies birds. We are going to be ornithologists

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

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This is Kea the crate. Here you will find all the tools needed for the "beaks" and the teams' "nests"

Materials Needed:

Tools to use as beaks:  

- Toby tweezers

- Scoopy spoons

- Tedros test tube caps

(each student with have either one pair of tweezers, one scoopy spoon, or one tedros tube. Each team needs to have all three beak types distributed evenly throughout their team.)


Objects to use representing bird food for the nests:   

 - Wooden marbles (item on the STEM shelf in the wooden marbles koa crate)

 - Cheerios

 - Popcorn kernels

 - String or yarn

 - Small pieces of paper

 - A graduated cylinder per team to put the seeds in once picked up


Instructions: Prep for activity by setting out materials from Kea:

1. Go out to a soccer field and place the food all over the ground around the first soccer goal (if just in an open field, then spread food out on one end of it. 

2. Then place their nests (graduated cylinders: one per team) on the other end of the soccer field and each teams' nest needs to be about 10 feet apart from the other.

3. Give students their various beaks and tell them it is their job to feed the baby birds back at their nest. Each team member takes turns running to the food source to pick up food with their beaks and runs back to their nest, puts the food in their teams' nest (graduated cylinder), and then tags the next team member to collect more "food."

4. Give each team a time limit of about 10 min to fill up their nest.

5. The team with the fullest nest wins

6. Take time to talk about what they learned with the guided questions and wrap up discussion. Have fun hearing from what they students experienced.

Guiding Questions:

Ask each team: What types of food did your team have the easiest time picking up? Were any impossible to pick up?

Example: Our spoons could grab the wooden marbles most easily, but we couldn’t grab the pieces of paper very well. Our tweezers could grab the paper easily, but they were too small to grab the marbles. Our caps could pick up Cheerios and popcorn, but the paper was a lot of work! It was harder for us to hold onto our food to get it into the bowl.


Ask: Did you use any special techniques or angles?

Example: When I had the spoons I would put them sideways so it was easier to scoop. When I was using the caps I would start with them wide apart and kind of scoop under the food as much as I could to try and hold it.


Ask: Which team had the widest variety of food? What does that tell us about their beaks?

Example: The tweezers could pick up everything except for the wooden marbles and they were able to hold onto the food more easily, it wouldn’t drop before they put it in their group’s bowl. The tweezers can get almost any kind of food they want!

Wrap-up: Pair/share prompt or class discussion: 

  1. Our class of birds today had a lot of seeds to eat (and some worms). What other types of food can birds around the world eat? (Penguins and other ocean birds eat a lot of fish. Hawks can eat small mammals like mice and rabbits. Some birds eat fruits. Hummingbirds drink nectar. Etc.) How do you think this affects the type of beaks they have? (Some birds need to catch animals with their beaks, some need strong beaks to crack nuts, they all need to have a beak shape that helps them eat their particular types of food.)

  2. Do birds that eat seeds help an ecosystem? (Yes, a lot of plants want their seeds to get eaten so the birds will spread them around and plant them in different places.) Do you think it is better for an ecosystem to have lots and lots of one type of bird with its particular beak, or do you think it is better for it to have lots of types of birds with lots of types of beaks? (More types of birds helps more types of plants! Encourage students to think of biodiversity in an ecosystem.)

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Themed Play: Bird Beak Relay! 30 minutes

Introduction: Do birds have teeth? (No) What do they have instead? (Beaks!) Give me an example a type of bird found anywhere in the world. Talk to your students about what kind of bird beaks they have seen. Are all beaks shaped the same? (No!) What type of food do those birds eat? We are going to experiment today with how different types of bird beaks work to collect food. We get to be birds today! Remember birds have to travel a long way to get their food! Birds in migration can travel up to 16,000 miles (which is over four times the length of the United States!)

The STEM Shelf


STEM Time: Design a bird feeder! 60 minutes


Introduction: Design a bird feeder and draw out ideas! Decide on materials and start building the feeder.

Instructions: Make sure students all have pencils out, and (optionally) colored pencils or crayons as well. Ask students to follow along in their own books as you read each page. 

Instructions: Follow the instructions to make bird-feeders as a class.

Questions you could ask:

Ask: What do you think will make your bird feeder design work well or be special?

Example: The birds can use the handle on the jug we made to perch while they eat!

Remind students they can continue to build their bird feeders the next day.

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Game Time/Journal: Bird Feeder Ideas! 20 minutes


Instructions: Draw and write out your bird feeder ideas on engineering design paper.

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Day 3:   Continue building your bird feeders!

Introduction: Who remembers what happened in the first half of the story about Soral and her bird feeders? (Call on a student, or a couple students, to share something they remember.) Today we’ll finish the story!

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

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STEM Taught Lab/Art/Programming: Continue building your bird feeders! 60 minutes

Instructions: Students continue to build their bird feeders. Let them experiment how they think a good bird feeder should look and do.

Guiding Question:

Ask: Which kind of bird feet do you think looks most like ours? What do you think our feet are made to do best?

Example: Answers will vary.

Wrap-up: Remind students to check their bird feeders and write observations for Day 3!

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Game Time/Journal: Camouflage! 20 minutes

Introduction: Play camouflage! How well can you guys hide?



1. The Game starts with a leader (teacher or random student) shouting “camouflage” at which point students scatter and hide. The leader counts to ten out loud with their eyes closed.

2. After 10, the leader begins looking around. If the leader recognizes anyone not completely hidden, they call out the name and location of their classmate. If they have correctly identified the student, then that student is out, if not, the student does not have to reveal his or her true identity, and is still in play.

3. Once the leader can no longer identify anyone, they call out “green light” (or any other silly word, such as ostrich, etc. which the students pick). The leader counts out loud to five with his or her eyes closed. The students have this five seconds to try and reach the leader, or at least get closer while still being out of sight.

4. The first student to touch the leader without being seen is the winner.

Wrap-up: Have students write the answers to the story's prompts. Discuss their answers.

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Day 4:   Observe seeds with Meeka Microscope!


Observe the birds at your feeder: Students learn about the different types of birds that they may have encountered at their feeder

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

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STEM Taught Lab/Art/Programming: Look at seeds under a microscope! 60 minutes

Instructions: Start by watching the STEMTaught movie "Meet Meeka Microscope"


1. Go out on a seed hunt. Just like a bird students will search the campus for seeds (10-15 min).

2. The microscope cart will be wheeled outside by the outdoor tables and then students will then bring back their seed samples to look at them under the microscope.

3. You will also have tubs (small sterilite containers) of seeds out on the tables for students to look at under the microscope. *Younger students can use the mini bini microscopes.

Game Time/Journal: Play Meet a Tree! 20 minutes


Introduction: Get to know the trees on your campus because you are going to be putting your bird feeders in the trees. This game will test how good you are at recognizing the features of a tree while you are blind folded. Birds are excellent at identifying trees based on their appearance so have fun playing Meet a Tree.


1) Have the kids partner up

2)Have one person in each pair be blindfolded/eyes shut

3)The non-blindfolded person acts as a guide and leads his/her partner to a tree

4)blindfolded person tries to find all the details of the tree without using sight

5)once the blindfolded partner has a good understanding of the tree, the guide will lead their partner back to the starting point

6) blindfolded individual becomes unblindfolded and goes looking for their tree

7) Once successfully found, the partners switch roles and start over

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Day 5:  Art project with seeds

Introduction: We learned about so many different kinds of birds, but birds are just one type of living thing! Now we get to learn about all sorts of other living things and the places they call home.

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

Special Themed Game: Birds! Birds! Birds! 30 minutes

Introduction: How do birds survive? What things do they need? Today we get to see what happens when birds find all they need to survive and what happens when they fall short of those needs. What are some things we need that birds need also?


1. Place two parallel lines on the floor or ground, ten to twenty feet apart. (you can use chalk, tape, string, ect.)

2. Count the group off in fours (1,2,3,4,1,2, etc.)

3. Ones become birds, (the others are needs of the bird) twos are food, threes are water, fours are shelter. "Birds" line up behind one of the lines and the "needs" stay behind the other line.

4. Show the groups what the symbols are for each of the needs, which include: holding hands over head for shelter, holding hands on stomach for food, and holding hands on mouth for water.

5. The groups (both birds and needs) turn their backs to each other and the birds pick a need by placing hands in one of the 3 positions.

6. On the count of three, both groups turn towards each other holding their signs clearly.

7. The birds must then run to the "need" that is holding the same sign. Each need may only have one bird.

8. Any bird who finds the "need" they are searching for, then takes the "food", "shelter" or "water"back to their side of the lines. Those needs then become birds as well, as birds are able to reproduce if they find what they need. Any bird who does not find what they are looking for, dies and becomes part of the habitat, or stays on the need side of the line.

9. Continue playing for as many rounds as desired.

10. Have a discussion about how the bird population continues to change because of the cycle of available needs.

Summary: Read, discuss and explore online.

Lesson Objective: Identify living and non-living components of habitats. Describe what makes rain forests unique and identify examples of life in rain forests. 

Introduction: We learned about so many different kinds of birds, but birds are just one type of living thing! Now we get to learn about all sorts of other living things and the places they call home.

Instructions: Get out scissors and Mezzie Measuring Tapes from your STEMTaught crate before class begins. After completing the pages about the many types of living things, you can use Google Earth to show the class the El Yunque rainforest in Puerto Rico or the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil on Google Earth. Make sure to start by showing the students where on the world map your classroom is! Ask them to guess what the habitat is called (“tropical forest” or “rain forest” are both fine), then read the rain forest pages together.

After you read the rain forest pages, ask students to measure how much rain falls in a rain forest each year (they can do it in partners if they need help holding the tape.) Then, show students the beginning of this rain forest video clip, up to 0:47 seconds (the rest of the video is more in-depth.)

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4th through 8th grade activity: Bird Seed-Leaf-Plant Mosaics 60 minutes

Introduction: Can anyone tell me what a mosaic is? A mosaic is a piece of art made from smaller pieces. Today we are going to make our own mosaics using bird seeds!

Materials Needed:



-different types of bird seeds

-writing utensil

-bowls or small graduated cylinders from Kea the crate

-different colored seeds

-cookie cutters or paper cut outs


-cardboard (optional)


1. Have students sketch out a bird scene on a piece of paper. 

2. Students can then start gluing seeds, flowers, leaves to the paper in whatever order they want! Let them get creative!

Example of an 8th graders artwork.


Wrap-up: Remind students to check their bird feeders and write observations for Day 5 on page 29!

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Fossil Hunt:  Go on a fossil hunt - study sedimentary rocks

IntroductionWe have been studying birds but has anyone ever wanted to study a dinosaur? Would you believe me if I told you that Birds were modern day dinosaurs! They are. Larger dinosaurs did go extinct however the smaller theropods are still alive and well all around us and you have been attracting them to our schools campus with your bird or should I say dinosaur feeders!

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

Story number 1 - All students - Dinosaurs for Dinner

Story number 2 - All students - Rocks tell Earth's Story "Fossils and Sedimentary Rocks" Pages. 1-12

Story 1: Dinosaur for Dinner 

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Story 2: Rocks Tell Earth's Story                         Pages. 1-12

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Free Play! 30 minutes


Quietly observe if birds are coming to the feeders. How many birds, how many different types. Watch the feeders for 5 minutes quietly before breaking for "Free Play'' - All students

*While students are playing adults and some older student helpers can set up the paleontology lab and the rock hunt

STEMTaught Lab: Fossil Hunt and Studying Rocks under the Microscope - 60 minutes

Introduction: It is time to go be paleontologists! Paleontologists are scientists that study ancient life by looking for evidence for them in sedimentary rocks. Let's go see if we can find some sedimentary rocks - we may even find some 450 million year old fossils in them!

Materials needed:


Rock Hunt setup:

- Sedimentary Rocks_Koa (sandstone, siltstone, shale samples)

These will be hid in an area around your school

Paleontology Lab setup:

- Microscopes

- Student Books - Grain Size Card (This can be cut out from their book)

- Scissors 

- Pencils for students to record notes

- Paper/crayons for younger students to draw what they observe. 


1. Set up a sedimentary rock hunt/fossil hunt - Teaching coaches and older students who want to help Set the sandstone siltstone and shale samples from the sedimentary rocks Koa outside. Please count each rock type so you can ensure all are collected during the activity and returned to the sedimentary rocks koa on the shelf at the end of the day. Samples should not be completely hidden but placed around in a large area for students to have fun finding and collecting. Similar to an easter egg hunt, have fun placing the rocks all over the area for students to find.

2. Go and be paleontologists! Hunt for rocks and bring them back to your lab. 1 sample/student Remind students that these rocks are part of the school's collection and will need to be returned at the end of the lab.

3. Back at the lab (outdoor area with microscopes/books/scissors/pencils ready) students will be sharing samples with each other and describing what they see in each of the 3 rock types.

4. After Observing for a few minutes under the microscope, with plain sight or with hand lenses ask:

"What do you notice?" 

Focus on getting students to describe how each rock is made from smaller pieces. The sandstone is made from sand grains that they can describe using their grain size card.


Do the sand grains look smooth or rough?

Under the microscope the sand grains look like they have some rough edges (answers will vary depending on samples)


Are the sand grains different sizes or all a similar size?

The sand grains look similar in size to each other (answers will vary depending on samples)


"Has anyone found a fossil?"

Fossil Trilobites can be found in the thin sheets of the shale samples. These trilobites are over 450 million years old! Be careful with them and remember that these are the schools fossil collection.

Paranopsis is the trilobites name. It is an organism that was on the earth before eyesight was found in animals on earth it was blind.


5. Trilobite Observations! Have students observe and draw any peranopsis samples found. The thorax was comprised of two body segments. It was able to enroll, or actually fold over to make a tight clam-shaped ball protecting itself from danger. It lived in relatively deep water.










6. Older students can fill out pages 15-18 in their STEMTaught Journal about their paleontological observations of the 3 samples using their grain size card that they cut out.

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Remind students to check their bird/dino feeders and write observations for Day 5 on page 29! If students forgot to record any days, encourage them to continue filling out pages 28 and 29 with their observations until they have done 5 total days, even if they weren’t five days in a row.

Themed game play: Trilobite Trilobite T-Rex 20 minutes


Trilobite, Trilobite T-Rex Like the classic game of ‘Duck, duck, goose’ this one requires nothing other than a group of kids and some space. Have the kids sit in a circle facing each other, with one of the kids ‘it’. They go around the circle touching the other children’s heads saying ‘Trilobite’ each time until they reach the person who they want to chase them, and they say ‘T-rex’. The person tagged T-rex gets up and chases the kid who tagged them, attempting to tag them before they sit down in the vacant spot. If the T-rex tags the other child before they sit down, they are up again, but if the T-rex is too slow, it is their turn to go around the circle and tag someone new.

Optional Movies:

Learn more about how Birds are the modern day ancestors of Dinosaurs.

Meet a paleontologist and hear about his dino discovery as a 14 year old.

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Make a Fossil:   Make your very own fossil with salt dough

Introduction: Have you ever seen a fossil in real life? Today we are going to make salt dough to see how fossils make a print in rocks or dirt. What kind of imprint will you make?

Lab Materials Needed: 

- flour

- salt

- warm water

- paint (optional)

- something to make imprints in the dough: leaves, sticks, shells (from marine habitat crate), toy dinosaurs, bones, etc.

- Bins for students to mix the dough in 


1. Click on the PDF and follow the recipe for salt dough. (if needed have students in groups of 3-5 to make salt dough using the exact recipe.)

2. Have the students roll the salt dough in a ball and squish into flat circles.

3. Have students take their leaves, sticks, shells, etc., and make imprints into their circles of salt dough. 

- students can make more than one fossil imprint if desired.

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Mixing up some fossil fun

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Sort Microfossils:   Sort your own microfossils! (Lab Day 1)

Introduction: Today we get to learn about an amazing Paleontologist named Mary Anning. After the story we get to look for real fossils ourselves and sort, graph and draw them.

Snack and Story Time: 20 minutes

Story - All students - The Princess of Paleontology (pgs. 35-43) 

*Glue stick/Scissors Students need scissors to cut out the fossil to glue to each page

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Introduction: Today you get to try your hand at sorting through real fossil sediment containing numerous marine fossils from 22 MYA (million years ago). In the Miocene age the ocean covered parts of the continental United States and shallow marine life thrived where we now drive our cars. Students will find fossils of species that are similar to species that exist today and others that are now extinct.

Materials needed: All materials can be found on the STEM shelf.

- Microfossils sorting crate

- petri dishes

- tweezers


1. Have students sort their samples of microfossils.

2. Click on the fossil lab picture for the fossil identification guide.

3. As students are sorting their fossils, have them start filling out their fossil lab sheet. (Just tally and graph)

- Feel free to explore the videos on the fossil lab page. (students will be using microscopes on the next day)

Lab Assistant - Teachers

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Lab Sheet - Students

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Lab Prep Movie - For Teachers

Student Movie 

Guiding Questions:

Ask: Why does California have fossils like this?

Example: The climate 20 million years ago was different. It was warmer and the ocean had risen up onto the land.


Ask: Why was Mary Anning a good paleontologist?

Example: Because she took detailed notes and drawings for each fossil that she found. She also looked for fossils every day.

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Draw Microfossils:  Microscope observation of microfossils! (Lab Day 2)

Introduction: Take a closer look at some more microfossils! Observe different fossils under the microscope and draw!

Materials needed:

- Meeka microscope (one per student)

- microfossils from the microfossil sorting crate

- petri dishes


1. Have each student or group grab a sample of microfossils.

2. They will look at their fossils through their microscopes.

3. Have students finish the second half of their lab sheets.

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Build a Mixasaur:  iArrange and Observe REcroscope observation of microfossils! (Lab Day 2)

Summary: Observe real 20 million year old fossils from Kern Co. Make a Mixasuar!

Introduction: We are going to get to 



K-3rd Graders:

Before class begins, make sure students have easy access to scissors, tape and any drawing or sketching implements (like colored pencils, crayons, or thin-tip markers.)

4th-8th Graders:

Students draw each of the habitats on their habitat cubes using their pencils, colored pencils, crayons or whatever is available to draw with

Lab Movie All Grades
Lab Movie 4th-8th Graders
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Instruction day 11 (pages 56 - 59):   Read, cut and discuss

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Summary: Sing as a class.

Lesson Objective: Students solidify and review information about life in each of the habitats you discussed while having fun.

Introduction: We’ve learned about so many different habitats together, and so many different living things that make homes in them! What’s a habitat we learned about? What’s another one we learned about? (Call on students until nobody can remember more or until somebody has said all 7.)

Instructions: For each habitat, read the song lyrics once out loud, then sing the song with the students. 

Wrap-up: Each student picks their favorite verse of the world habitat song (from the 7 options), and you all sing them simultaneously as a class! It will be chaos, but it will be fun.

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Summary: Play a game and discuss.

Lesson Objective: Review and compare the habitats students learned about, and the plants and animals that live there.

Introduction: We are going to play a dice game that will help us think about how different types of plants and animals live in different habitats. 

Instructions: Before class begins, make sure students have easy access to scissors, tape and any drawing or sketching implements (like colored pencils, crayons, or thin-tip markers.)


Students draw each of the habitats on their habitat cubes using their pencils, colored pencils, crayons or whatever is available to draw with in your classroom. Encourage them to review the previous pages in their STEMTaught chapter if they need help remembering what any of the habitats are like, and walk among them as they sketch to check what students are drawing. You may ask the students at this point to share with a neighbor which habitat they would most like to live in and why, and ask for a show of hands to view which habitats students chose.


Then, preview the questions on the question cube, reading each question on the dice with your class before following the instructions on page 48 under “Prepare Your Paper Cubes (Dice).”


Once students have made their dice, demonstrate rolling them and playing the game for the class to see. Ask if students have any questions before pairing them up and letting them play for a few minutes. Remind them that it’s fine to look back at the pages describing each habitat if they need to when answering the questions!

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Instruction day 12 (pages 60 - 62):   Read, cut and discuss

Summary: Read, cut, paste and discuss.

Lesson Objective: Notice where you can find living things in your own environment.

Introduction: Living things are just about everywhere on Earth! Let’s think back to the very first day of the chapter, when we brainstormed a list of the living things we saw that day. Has anybody seen anything new they can think of since we began this chapter?

Instructions: Before class begins, make sure all students have scissors and glue. Read “Living Things Are All Around You,” pointing to each of the pictures next to the cartoon child and asking students to name what they are. Students then cut out all the pictures on page 57 and paste them on page 59 where they think they’d be most likely to find them. 


Guiding Question:

Ask: Would you find some of these living things in more than one place? Which ones?

Example: The songbirds will peck around on the ground but also fly up high!

Summary: Lead an outdoor activity and reflect on the chapter.

Lesson Objective: Practice observing living things in the environment in real life; reflect. 

Introduction: Today we’re going outside for class to do some science observing for ourselves! Remember that we can find living things everywhere—from down by our toes to high in the sky.

Instructions: Make sure each student brings their journals and something to write with. Encourage them to make detailed drawings of the plants and animals they observe, and to take notes about what they see.


Once students are back at their desks, give them a few minutes to write down answers to the reflection questions, and invite any students to share answers with the rest of the class.


Guiding Questions:

Ask: Did anybody find something they never noticed before? Where?

Example: I saw little flowers by my feet in the grass that I had never noticed!


Ask: How might you discover even more kinds of life in the places you looked? What tools would help you?

Example: A magnifying glass, a telescope, a ladder, a shovel—lots of answers for this.

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Wrap-up: Students draw and/or write a response to the prompt on the final page of the chapter. Let them know that even though they learned about so many incredible living things, there are many, many more out there that haven’t been photographed or described yet! If they really liked learning about the habitats, plants and animals, let them know that continuing to carefully observe and take notes about their own environment and the living things there is great practice for helping the world discover new ones someday. This is true even if you live in a city, a suburb or a farm.

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Send books home with students:   Literacy Initiative

Print and send home 


Summary: Send the book home with your students. Print the signature form and assign your students the homework of having their parents read the STEMTaught unit to them.


Lesson objective: STEMTaught has split each unit into separately bound books as a literacy initiative. Every STEMTaught unit contains an illustrated story that is fun and imaginative. Teachers can send the unit home at the end of the month and request that parents read the stories to their children a few times. Students should have the homework assignment of going through the book with their parents to tell them about the activities they did, about what they learned and what they liked most about the unit.

With parents more involved in what their children are learning and praising their progress students will have a better chance of improving and developing self-confidence in STEM.

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